Your bird's diet is more than just food – it is the entire basis for your bird's good health, lifespan, appearance, energy and even good behavior. But what is a healthy diet and how can you be sure you are feeding your bird appropriately?
Components of a Healthy Bird Diet
There are several factors to consider when planning a healthy diet for your bird and many bird owners are surprised to discover that the healthiest diets have to go far beyond just food and nutrition. To make your bird's diet the best it can be, consider…
Type of Food
Different birds have different dietary needs and feeding preferences. Seeds, fruit, insects, grain, nectar, nuts – these may all be part of a healthy diet, but they aren't all healthy for every bird. Your pet bird's diet should be filled with the foods they prefer, and a variety of different foods is essential for a balanced diet that will provide proper nutrition to keep your bird healthy.
A bird's bill is made of keratin, the same protein that makes up hair and fingernails. Eating wears the bill down in the proper shape, which is necessary for the bird to to grip and climb safely, as well as preen its feathers. Foods of different textures keep the wear on a bird's bill even, and different textures also provide different mental stimulation to keep a bird entertained and alert.
Feeding time is a major activity for a pet bird, and the more entertaining their food is, the more enriching each meal will be. Foods can be hung occasionally rather than placed in a simple dish, or puzzle toys can be fun alternatives to satisfy not only the bird's nutritional needs, but its foraging instincts as well. Foods of different colors and types will also be more entertaining and will help eliminate the boredom and restlessness that can lead to behavioral problems.
Pet birds do not need as many calories as wild birds because they do not need to evade predators, survive poor weather or migrate great distances. Overfeeding a bird can lead to obesity and a wide range of health problems. Be aware of how much food your bird needs and plan meal sizes accordingly, so there will be no leftover food that may rot and make the bird sick.
Small quantities of grit – sand or fine gravel – is essential for some bird species, such as finches, doves and canaries. The grit aids their digestion and helps with nutrient absorption. Not all bird species require grit, however, and providing it irresponsibly can lead to an impacted digestive tract and significant health problems.
Offering your pet bird occasional treats can be fine, as long as the treats are factored into their overall dietary needs for nutrition, variety and quantity. Treats may be part of playing games with your bird or practicing training exercises, but be sure they are healthy snacks rather than empty, useless calories.
All birds need an ample supply of fresh, clean water for drinking and preening, and it is essential for temperature regulation as well as good digestion. Water can be offered in a dish or bottle, but the container will need to be rinsed and washed daily to be sure it does not become contaminated.
If your bird has a varied diet of appropriate food, vitamin supplements are not generally necessary. Some enriched pellets may be part of your birds daily rations, however, and extra supplements can be prescribed by a veterinarian if your bird's dietary and nutritional needs aren't being met.
Over a bird's lifespan, its dietary needs will change. Growth, molting, breeding, aging and changing environmental conditions can all make it necessary to change your bird's diet. Changes should be slow and gradual so your bird can safely adjust, however, without disrupting their digestion. If your bird's feeding preferences change rapidly or severely, consult an avian veterinarian right away to pinpoint any health problems or complications to be sure your bird gets the best possible care.
A healthy diet means a healthy bird – make sure your bird is getting the diet it deserves!